Overview: Fusion 360 vs. Onshape Scripting

My fascination with gears led me to the scripting mechanism in both Fusion 360 and Onshape. Both CAD packages offer only minimal gear generation capabilities, and not even built-in to the main software: Spur gear generation was given in the form of an external add-in. This meant they are ideal introductory entry points to examine the different design philosophies.

The Onshape team invented their own scripting language called FeatureScript. It has some superficial similarities with C-style languages which helps a software developer get up and running more quickly on the new language. The code libraries are designed specifically around designing parts within a Onshape feature studio.

In contrast, Autodesk did not try to invent a new language. Instead, they decided to support multiple existing languages and let the user choose the one that best suits their purpose. C++ or Python. (Fusion 360 used to also support JavaScript, but support has been deprecated.)

Readability: Because FeatureScript was designed specifically for its task, the code is much more direct and readable. All API are designed to fit with FeatureScript because that’s the only language supported. Fusion 360 C++/Python code must call into the Autodesk library code which had to be adapted to be usable across languages. Advantage: Onshape.

Performance: C++ can be compiled to native code and executed on the local computer. For small tasks, this will be the fastest possible option. Python code running locally wouldn’t be quite as fast, but unlike FeatureScript, it does not have to deal with network latency. Advantage: Fusion 360

Security: FeatureScript executes in a secure sandbox on Onshape server, and thus limited in risk for exploitation by bad actors. In contrast, a native C++ binary can easily host hostile code. Python is slightly better in this regard, but it’s not clear how much effort (if any) Fusion 360 puts into running Python securely. Advantage: Onshape

Development: Like the rest of Onshape, all work with FeatureScript takes place within the user’s web browser window. If the developer does not like the Onshape FeatureScript editor, they are unfortunately stuck. In contrast, Fusion 360 presents many options. C++ development takes place on a platform-appropriate IDE (Visual Studio for Windows, Xcode for MacOS) and for Python the Spyder IDE is provided. Advantage: Fusion 360

Evolution: FeatureScript is owned by Onshape and any future evolution is fully under Onshape control. Since all FeatureScript written by users are stored on Onshape servers, they can validate any future changes for compatibility. In contrast, Autodesk owns neither C++ nor Python and could not direct future evolution. And since Autodesk does not host the plug-in code, they have no visibility on breaks in compatibility. Lastly, as history has shown, Autodesk can choose to abandon a language (JavaScript) and all the users on it. Advantage: Onshape

Capability: FeatureScript is constrained to feature creation in a parts studio. Autodesk API is currently roughly similar, focused on the model designer portion of Fusion 360, but they are starting to branch out. As of this writing they’ve just started rolling out some basic scripting capabilities for the CAM module and stated intention to do more. Advantage: Fusion 360


Python LogoFor the immediate future, I intend to focus on Fusion 360 scripting via Python. I’ve wanted to become more proficient in Python, and this would be a good way to look at Python through a lens entirely different from writing Qt code on a Raspberry Pi. I also have ambition to write Fusion 360 plug-in that leverages external libraries to provide novel services, and that’s not possible when stuck inside the FeatureScript sandbox. I will just have to keep a careful eye on the Python library imports in an effort to keep the security risks under control.

 

Fusion 360 and Onshape: Spur Gears via Scripts

I’ve been learning Onshape and Fusion 360 as they are two of the cloud-based CAD solutions with a subscription tier that’s free for me. They each have their strengths and weaknesses and it’s always interesting to compare and contrast between them.

One item they share that I found surprising is that neither of them has built-in capability to add gears into the mechanical design. I’ve always thought of gears as a critical part of any nontrivial machinery. So I had expected to find a significant section of the CAD package to be devoted to creating various types of gears for different applications, simulating and analyzing their suitability to the task, but there was nothing.

For basic projects, a simple spur gear would suffice. Thankfully, both companies have heard the user requests and made simple spur gear creation available as an add-in created with their own respective scripting mechanism.

Extending Onshape requires learning to write code in their custom language FeatureScript. A member of the Onshape team used it to create the spur gear script and made it available in the public documents library. One downside of this approach is the fact that (1) Onshape users needs to make a copy of a public document before they could use it for their own purposes, and (2) all documents created with the free subscription tier of Onshape are public. These two factors combined means many, many copies of the spur gear script in the public documents library. Correction: Custom FeatureScript can be added to the toolbar without making a copy. Thanks [FS] for the comment!

OnShape Spur Gear

Fusion 360 did not declare their own scripting language. They expose their extension API to two languages: C++ for the high-performance native code crowd, and the Python interpreted scripting language for the less performance-focused audience. They used to also support JavaScript, but as of July 2017 they have moved that into maintenance mode due to lack of usage.

The spur gear script is part of the sample script library installed alongside Fusion 360, so I didn’t have to find a separate download nor was copying of public document necessary. They presented it in both C++ and Python format. I found the Python version in the “Scripts and Add-ins” menu and clicked “Run”.

F360 Script Addin

Onshape and Fusion 360’s spur gear scripts present their gear parameters in slightly different formats, but both should suffice for simple projects. If I want to do something more complex, I will have to dive into coding my own extension script.

I’ve wanted to learn more about what is and isn’t possible in an extension script anyway, so… challenge accepted!

F360 Spur Gear

 

 

 

LA Times Writer’s Take on 3-D Printing

As a Los Angeles Times subscriber, I generally appreciate their coverage of technology. I may not always agree with the accuracy or their assessments, but I appreciate their effort to make technological topics accessible for non-techies. A few months ago they ran an article on 3D printing. The writer borrowed a MakerBot Replicator for six weeks and wrote about their experience.

LA Times 3D Printer
Follow the link for the full article.

Most technology articles tend to be printed as part of the Business section. This article ran in the Home & Garden section because the writer was evaluating a 3D printer in the role of a home appliance. As soon as I realized this, I said to myself “oh no” and my expectation for the article went downhill.

Over the course of this six-week experiment, the author downloaded progressively more complex and ambitious designs off Thingiverse and printed them. The author then wrote about the experience of printing and the (lack of) usefulness of the results. The author was less than impressed by the current state of the art in 3D printing. One sentence from the conclusion: “I merely toyed with the machine for its novelty without finding a conclusive use for it.”

Reading through this, the voice inside my head was screaming: “You’re doing it wrong!” The author never explored printing their own creation. Something new and novel just for themselves. This is, in my view, the most important point of 3D printing and this article’s missed it entirely.

Here’s an analogy with a 2D paper printer commonplace in homes and offices: A writer borrows a laser printer for a few weeks, goes on the internet to download progressively longer PDFs of books written by other people. The writer never explores the freedom of printing books of their own writing. After printing a few books written by others, the author concludes there’s no reason to have a printer at home when it’s cheaper and faster to just buy already-printed books.

I can understand how this article went off on the wrong track due to the flawed premise, but I still disagree with it.

Building a Tiny “Joule Thief”

Yesterday I got a “Joule Thief” (a.k.a. Armstrong self-oscillating voltage booster) circuit up and running on a breadboard. The circuit was more complex than it needed to be, with a tangle of wires, because things got messy while debugging. But now that I know which parts connect to which, it’s time to simplify.

The goal is to make it small and compact enough to package together as a single-battery LED flashlight. That general goal broke down to the following parts:

  1. Minimize physical size. Since the coil is the largest single piece (other than the AA battery) it makes sense to align the diameter of the coil to the battery and pack everything else as tightly inside as I can.
  2. Minimize component count. Most Joule Thief examples on the internet (including the top picture on the Wikipedia page) soldered the legs of the individual components together. No circuit board needed.
  3. Friendly to hand soldering. There are some ready-made Joule Thief circuits for sale on the internet using surface mount components and a circuit board. I wanted something I can build by hand and maybe use as a soldering teaching project to be shared on the internet.

After a few iterations, I have something I’m happy to share with the world. This is purely about the mechanical assembly – the electronic schematic is identical to the one in the Wikipedia article linked at the top of this post.

An overview in words:

  • The resistor for the NPN transistor base is installed between the collector and emitter. The resistor acts as physical separation in order to avoid a short-circuit.
  • The transistor and LED are pointing in opposite directions, allowing their pins to point towards each other and soldered together. The aforementioned resistor keeps the LED anode and cathode separate.
  • The transistor is stuffed into the middle of the coil, utilizing the center volume.

The build sequence in pictures:

1 - Transistor
Transistor with the base bent in preparation for resistor installation.
2 - Transistor Resistor.jpg
The 1K Ohm resistor is installed on the base, between collector and emitter.
3 - Transistor Resistor Coil
The coil has two wires wound together. One end of this dual-coil is facing the camera, the other end facing away. Since we need to wire up the coil in opposite directions, we’ll bend one wire of the front pair towards the back, and the opposite back side wire to the front.
4 - Coil prep.jpg
The two wires now facing away from the camera are soldered together to become the positive terminal of the circuit. One of the two wires facing the front will be soldered to the resistor, and the other to the emitter.
5 - Transistor in Coil
Transistor in the center of the coil. Now the coil wires can be soldered.
5a - Resister soldered
Resistor soldered to one coil wire, all the others have been trimmed short in preparation for attaching the LED.
6 - LED
LED is soldered to the circuit, as is a wire to act as negative (return) wire.
7 - AA
Install the whole assembly in front of a 3D-printed AA battery tray: Let there be light!

Relay Replaced Instead of Bypassed on Monoprice Maker Ultimate (Wanhao Duplicator 6)

After the due diligence investigation of my broken Monoprice Maker Ultimate (a rebadged Wanhao Duplicator 6) I determined my unit has indeed suffered the known common failure of the main 24V relay. I was also satisfied as to the cause of the failure – it was the consequence of engineering design decision I disagreed with, driving a relay far above its rated rating of 10 amps. But I was unsatisfied with the internet forum wisdom of bypassing the relay when it fails. I thought it had a useful purpose to serve and should be replaced instead of bypassed.

I ordered a replacement (or more accurately a pack of them, since it makes little sense to buy or sell a single unit of something so cheap) and got to work once they showed up. The first order of business was to get out the label machine and label all the wires connected to the control board so I know where everything plugged back in. The wires were held in place with dabs of hot glue to resist them from being shaken loose in transit, those globs had to be removed before I could disconnect the wires. After that’s done, the board came out easily.

Before I started de-soldering anything, I performed a quick verification test on the new relay: I connected 5V across the control pins and heard a reassuring “click”. Multi-meter confirmed that the continuity shifted from the NC (Normally Closed) to NO (Normally Open) pin as expected.

After that, it’s time to heat up the soldering iron. Normally I would label the old component “BAD” before starting on the project, to make sure I don’t de-solder a broken component and inadvertently soldered the bad item right back onto the board. (This is the voice of experience speaking.) But in this case, the melted hole is a pretty good way for me to tell which is the bad one.

NewOldRelay

It takes some effort to de-solder a component with 5 large pins like this relay, but nothing tricky. It just requires a lot of patience with the de-soldering tools at hand. And once done, the new relay soldered into place easily.

With this replacement, my 3D printer is back in action with all original functionality intact.

 

Investigating the Infamous Relay Bypass for Monoprice Maker Ultimate (Wanhao Duplicator 6)

This week my 3D printer stopped working mid-print. All motor movement, heating activity, and cooling fans stopped simultaneously. However, the control panel is still responsive and so is the LED light strip. Time to hit the web and see what I can find.

My printer is a Monoprice Maker Ultimate, which is a rebranded Wanhao Duplicator 6. Which is in turn a knock-off of the Ultimaker design, though not a literal clone of any specific Ultimaker model.

A web search of my symptoms found a known point of failure with this product: the main 24V relay. The popular explanation is that Wanhao cloned somebody else’s circuit board, removed the features that would use the relay, and used a cheap relay that’s always on. So the recommended workaround is to solder a wire to bridge the legs of the relay and bypass it. “It doesn’t do anything anyway.”

I was skeptical of this explanation because if Wanhao is really just cutting costs, they would skip the relay entirely: no relay is cheaper than any relay! There must be more to this story.

But first, a check to see if the relay is indeed the fault. A quick visual inspection confirmed that there’s a problem with my relay, indicated by the melted hole in the side.

D6 Relay hole

For additional confirmation, we temporarily bridged the pins as recommended by forum posters. When done with the power on, it brought the always-on heat break and circuit board cooling fans immediately to life. Relay failure confirmed.

What does the relay do?

Turning off this relay cuts power to all 24V components: Motors, fans, and heaters. In normal operation, there’s no situation where the 5V components (micro-controller, display, LED strip) are running without the 24V components, so the answer must be related to abnormal operation. Our best hypothesis: this relay is a safety switch in place to halt the system if the 5V subsystem should fail. If that happens, it makes sense we’d want to shut down all the 24V parts too. And now that we have a plausible description of the relay as a safety feature, bypassing it with a soldered wire seems like a bad idea.

Why did the relay fail?

This part was easier to figure out. When I ran my printer with my Kill-A-Watt meter, it indicated the power draw jumps by over 300 watts when both heaters are active. So even ignoring the cooling fans and motors, the print bed and filament heaters together draw over 12.5 amps from the 24V plane.

Typing in the designation on the relay “SRD-05VDC-SL-C” found its datasheet, which says the relay can handle 10 amps. So the printer was designed such that the relay exceeded its rated capacity anytime both heaters are active. Not exactly a great design. The relay tolerated this overworked condition for many months but this week it could take no more.

The correct solution, then, would be to replace this relay with a higher-rated unit that can handle 15+ amps continuously. (12.5 for heaters + motors and fans + margin.) Unfortunately relays are not standardized in their footprint so I failed to find a drop-in higher-capacity replacement. (I found the Omron G5LE series with the same footprint, but with the same 10A maximum for DC so I’d be no better off.) Hooking up a beefier relay to the circuit board via wires is a possibility but intimidating. 300 watts of electricity is very good at finding minor flaws and turning them into big problems.

What do we do?

To summarize, the candidate solutions are:

  1. Bypass the relay with a wire as per internet forums: Seems like a bad idea to bypass a potential safety feature.
  2. Install an exact replacement: Known to work until it doesn’t.
  3. Install a higher-rated drop-in replacement: Great idea but such a replacement could not be found.
  4. Install a higher-rated unit elsewhere in the box, connect to the circuit board via wires: Adds many points of potential failure and >300W of power is unforgiving of flaws.

I’d love #3 but I couldn’t find a beefier relay with identical footprint. #1 and #4 are asking for trouble. For the immediate future, I choose #2 as the least-bad solution.

A 3D-Printed Enclosure to Take My LED Project On The Go

For the Connect Week event put on by Innovate Pasadena, the Hackaday LA group is hosting the “Bring-A-Hack” event where attendees are encouraged to bring projects (in any stage of completion) for show and discussion. Since I’ve been building my LTC-4627JR driver board as a learning project, I wanted to bring it in for show-and-tell.

Now I could just bring the assembled circuit board and pass it around as an inert object, but what fun would that be? I wanted to bring in something that shows it doing something, and provide some way for people to interact with the whole contraption. Looking at my parts on hand, it seemed easiest to rebuild my thermometer test project. I can have a simple Python program run on the Raspberry Pi, reading temperature from the Tux-Lab Si7021 breakout board, and sending it out to my display. That makes 3 circuit boards, plus they’ll need portable power. I will enlist my Amazon purchases: the 3-cell lithium ion battery pack protected by a S-8254A IC, and the MP1584 buck converter to translate the battery pack’s power into Raspberry Pi friendly voltage.

They present a logistics challenge. There are many parts and while it’s fine to just connect them with wires on my work table, it’s too unwieldy to carry on the Gold Line to Pasadena. I’m going to need some kind of enclosure to carry the whole thing.

To Fusion 360 we go! I just needed a simple enclosure so it was pretty fast to draw up. The bottom tray is for power: it holds the battery cells, their protection board, and the buck converter to 5 volt output. The upper tray holds the Raspberry Pi. The lid of the tray holds my custom LED circuit board, and a few clamps holds it all together. The clamps should be easily removable so I could disassemble the box to show people what’s inside.

ShowandTellBox

I had originally intended to mount the Si7021 breakout board as well, but ended up deciding it would be more fun to have it dangling out for people to play with it. Here are the layers without the clamps, so they can be taken apart and show off the insides.

IMG_5273

And here’s the “travel configuration”, with clamps holding the pieces together.

IMG_5274

This setup worked well. I was able to carry it in my backpack without worrying about tangling up or shorting out wires. Once I arrived, the project was fairly well received and lots of people had fun playing with the thermometer.

Rev. B @ Hackaday LA August Meetup

There’s nothing like a deadline to drive progress, so I’ve imposed deadlines on myself to keep things moving. For Luggable PC Mark II Revision B, the self-imposed deadline was to get it finished (enough) to show at the Hackaday LA August Meetup. It was a mad scramble towards the end, cutting fancy feature ideas in favor of simple ones that can be done quickly within the deadline. But I made it! I took it on the Metro Gold Line train to the meetup venue SupplyFrame DesignLab. Here’s a picture somebody took of rev B sitting on the projects show-and-tell table.

highres_464139891

Luggable PC Mark II Revision B sitting on the projects show-and-tell table along with project from other people. I’m not visible in this picture by [SpencerSkelly]

I always forget to take pictures of my own project while at a Hackaday meetup… I’m too excited talking about my project. I’m not visible in this picture. The location I spent most of my chatting time is blocked by the person with white polo shirt on the right.

Many Hackaday LA regulars are familiar with my Luggable PC Mark I, and might even be getting tired of it. Mark II was a fresh take and attracted a new wave of attention. It is always fun to share my projects with like-minded people.

RevB_Backjpg

RevB_Front

A downside of mad scrambles to meet deadlines is overdose. I’m enthusiastic about Mark II and there’s still lots to problems I need to fix with rev B…. but after the deadline scramble I’m ready for a break before I start working on rev C.

I was planning to go back to learning Python, but they had a giveaway at this meetup and I was granted a Microchip MPLAB Xpress PIC16F18345 Evaluation Board. Getting some basic familiarity with these low-power (in both computation power and electrical power) microcontrollers had been on my to-do list for some time. Now that a PIC microcontroller board has dropped in my lap, I might as well run with it!

Make a Flexible Bracket With 3D Printing Vase Mode

Due to real-world inconveniences like gravity and manufacturing tolerance, the monitor sags relative to the aluminum extrusion frame of Luggable PC Mark II Revision B. We’ll have to compensate for this by adding something to help hold the monitor in the frame.

This Lenovo L24q-20 has barely any bezel around the screen, which was a tremendous plus when I was shopping around monitors. The tiny bezel makes for compact dimensions which makes it easy to package, and the lack of excess material contributes to weight. But now the lack of bezel means I need to be careful with the bracket that we’ll need.

When there’s physical stress on a LCD screen, it distorts the layers inside and show up as visible color distortions on-screen. It isn’t good for the screen and doesn’t look good, either. We want something that can spread this stress evenly over a large area. Ideally something flexible so high-stress areas can give way to balance the load.

 

I started designing rigid 3D printed brackets with stick-on foam strips for flexibility, but then remembered “vase mode”. This is an option in 3D printing where, instead of printing a solid object, the plastic is only extruded on the perimeter. This results in a thin shell of the shape, the thickness of the wall is the 3D printer extruder nozzle diameter, and the center is empty.

Thingiverse had a few objects to be printed in “vase mode”. It was good for showing off something 3D printers can do easily that is difficult for other manufacturing methods. But while it was good for these Thingiverse trinkets, I didn’t see a functional use for this technique… until today!

I designed the shape I wanted in Fusion 360 (as a solid) and printed a short segment using vase mode to prove the idea is sound.

Monitor top test clip
Short test piece of clip printed with vase mode

Once the short test piece proved successful, I proceeded to print enough segments to cover all available space on the extrusion bar. (Everything not taken up by the handle or the corner pieces.) They hold the monitor in place while distributing that pressure across almost the full width of the monitor.

Clip full width
Four segments of flexible clip (two on each side of handle) printed with vase mode

CAD World vs. Real World: Chassis Flex

On today’s episode of “why we build prototypes”: chassis flex.

In the digital CAD world, all features are exactly as drawn. Their dimensions always perfectly match the specified value. All surfaces mate perfectly. All fasteners are aligned to their holes. All dimensional values are static and never change, regardless of the physical stresses applied on them. Multiple objects are allowed to occupy the same space.

None of these things are true in the real world.

Digitally simulating all the messiness of the real world are hard. There exists software tools for engineers to simulate specific aspects. Interference checking can try to find objects occupying the same space, but it can be deceptive because they rarely take into account all the other factors such as manufacturing tolerance and physical stresses.

Finite element analysis can help understand how objects move in response to physical loads in the real world. It takes some level of expertise to properly set up an analysis, beefy computing resources to run the simulation, and then human expertise again to interpret the results. A badly set up simulation will tell the wrong story, a bad interpretation can do the same, and manufacturing tolerances can throw everything off in unexpected ways.

For a hobbyist project that is quick to build and failure is cheap, it is faster and easier to find out how things act in the real world by just building it in the real world. Hence the construction of Luggable PC Mark II Revision B. Seeing everything in the physical world highlighted some problems. Most of them are trivial, but one stood out.

The Lenovo monitor is attached in the lower back, using a metal plate I pulled from the original display stand. The plate goes to a 3D-printed spacer, which attached to aluminum extrusion bars, which attach to another 3D printed part, before it is attached to the bottom of the aluminum frame. All those less-than-perfect joints add up to a clearly visible problem. The monitor is supposed to sit within the aluminum extrusion frame, but when all the little errors accumulated, the top edge of the monitor does not sit in the frame like it did in CAD, it actually juts out over 20 mm from the frame.

Next: how to help the top of the frame and the top of the monitor stay together.

 

Screen frame separation

 

Maintain Relative Spacing Between M3 Nuts in Misumi HFS3 Aluminum Extrusions

In the previous post I described how to keep individual M3 nuts in place on a Misumi HFS3 Aluminum Extrusion. After I started using those little 3D-printed holders to keep the nuts in place, I ran into a related but different problem.

Some large parts require more than one fastener to hold them to the extrusion. And some of these parts get moved around as I revise the details of my design. A specific large bracket required four nuts and, after pushing the M3 nuts around (all four every time I moved the bracket) I started thinking about how to improve this process.

The first answer was to scale my existing design upwards. Instead of a tiny object that holds a single M3 nut, create a longer strip that holds multiple nuts in place. In practice, the friction of a longer strip causes many problems. When pushed, the strip will want to bend instead of move, which increases the pressure on the sides of the rail, which made it even more resistant to moving. And when pulled, the strip is not strong enough to stand up to the strain and would break apart.

The second answer is to reduce the size so there’s less frictional stress to bend or stretch and generally break the strip. But then the old problem came back: with less friction, the nuts would move around if the frame is jostled or tilted. It’s nice that they all move together, maintain proper spacing, but that’s not terribly useful.

The third answer is to combine elements from the previous two: the strip inside the rail is still loose and free to move, but I added a tab that sticks above the rail. This tab is large enough to provide friction against the rail edge. As the friction is at tab, friction would not cause the rest of the strip to bend or stretch. Since such a strip is customized for a particular part, the tab is also specialized to the mating part. When the tab is pushed up against the side of the mating part, all the nuts on the strip are at the appropriate places.

With the help of this strip, it is now much easier to move the brackets around to try out different ideas.

Nut locator strip

 

Make M3 Nuts Stay Put in Misumi HFS3 Aluminum Extrusions.

While putting together the exterior extrusion frame for Luggable PC Mark II Revision B, I got frustrated with another recurring headache. Aluminum extrusions (like the 15mm Misumi HFS3 I’m using) are shaped so I could put fasteners (in this case, standard M3 nuts) in a rail to fasten things at arbitrary locations along the extrusion. The fact the nuts can slide anywhere along the rail also meant they don’t stay still. If I place the nuts at the desired locations, I have to be careful not to bump or tilt the assembly or the nuts will go sliding out of position.

After too many episodes of nuts moving out of place, I decided to put some thought into the problem. I ended up with a small 3D printed part I can insert into the extrusion along with the M3 nut. It is large enough to rub against the edge of the rail and thereby holding the M3 nut in place, but small enough that it can still be moved with a little push.

Nut hold insert

It was a challenge to dial in the exact dimensions. The acceptable range is very narrow – in fact almost too narrow for a consumer-level 3D printer like mine to handle. Within the same batch I printed, some are extremely tight and some are too loose. If I print at a different time of day, some are entirely unusable. I also ran out of one spool of filament during a print, and the new spool (even though it is the same type from the same vendor, probably even the same manufacturing batch) returned different results.

So I have to keep adjusting dimensions and generate different files between batches. Fortunately, since they are small, it is not a huge loss of material to just throw away the unusable pieces. It solves my headache and that’s all I really ask of them.

Simplify3D Custom Supports for Lenovo L24q-20 Power Adapter Bracket

The Luggable PC Mark II project is built around the Lenovo L24q-20 QHD (2560×1440) monitor. One of the reasons I chose this screen was because its AC power adapter is relatively small and I thought I could package it within the enclosure. For Revision A, I didn’t do anything fancy: the power adapter is zip-tied to one of the aluminum extrusions. I should do better for Revision B.

Monitor PSU zip tie

The goal is to design a mounting bracket that can hold the AC adapter in place, look relatively elegant, allow easy removal of the adapter, and do it all while taking up minimal space. This is commonly solved by a bracket with flexible claws to hold the object in place, so I designed one of my own tailored to the dimensions of this adapter.

Monitor PSU CAD

My 3D printer can translate this CAD object into the real world, but it needs a little help. Deposition modeling type 3D printers like mine can’t put things in arbitrary locations in space, due to pesky things like gravity. The fastener screw hole in the middle has enough surrounding material for the 3D printer to build up the top of the hole despite gravity, but the tines at the end need to be supported while printing.

This is one of the strengths of Simplify3D as slicer – the ability to customize these printing supports. I wanted supports to help me print the fork tines on the ends, but I didn’t want any support for the fastener hole as they are unnecessary and, if present, would be very difficult to remove. In Cura 2.x (which came with the 3D printer) supports are an all-or-nothing proposition. I could not selectively choose what to support. Simplify3D allows me to do so.

Monitor PSU S3D

And thanks to this custom support, I have a clean fastener hole along with fork tines to hold the power adapter in place. I don’t use Simplify3D custom supports very frequently, but when I do, I’m very glad I have the tool at my disposal.

Plastic Bottle Upcycling with TrussFab

csm_chair_FEA-nolable-02_ea4ad9b60f
Image from TrussFab.

A perpetual limitation of 3D printing is the print volume of the 3D printer. Any creations larger than that volume must necessarily consist of multiple pieces joined together in some way. My Luggable PC project is built from 3D printed pieces (each piece limited in size by the print volume) mounted on a skeleton of aluminum extrusions.

Aluminum extrusions are quite economical for the precision and flexibility they offer, but such capabilities aren’t always necessary for a project. Less expensive construction materials are available offering varying levels of construction flexibility, strength, and precision depending on the specific requirements of the project.

For the researchers behind TrussFab, they chose to utilize the ubiquitous plastic beverage bottle as structural component. Mass produced to exact specifications, the overall size is predictable and topped by a bottle cap mechanism necessarily precise to seal the contents of the bottle. And best of all, empty bottles that have successfully served their primary mission of beverage delivery are easily available at quantity.

These bottles are very strong in specific ways but quite weak in others. TrussFab leverages their strength and avoids their weakness by building them into truss structures. The software calculates the geometry required at the joints of the trusses and generates STL files for them to be 3D printed. The results are human-scale structures with the arbitrary shape flexibility of 3D printing made possible within the (relatively) tiny volume of a 3D printer.

Presented recently at ACM CHI’17 (Association for Computing Machinery, conference for Computer-Human Interaction 2017) the biggest frustration with TrussFab is that the software is not yet generally available for hobbyists to play with. In the meantime, their project page has links to a few generated structures on Thingiverse and a YouTube video.

 

3D Printed Acrylic Fixture

3D Printed Acrylic Fixture CADSince my last fixture project was foiled by laser cutter kerf, I thought I’d try 3D printing the next fixture to avoid laser cutter kerf spoiling my fixture accuracy.

I started with the same idea as the previous project – just put two pieces together in a right angle joint. This time I put a hinge in the fixture. The idea is that the work pieces can be put in place separately (with acrylic cement already applied to joint surfaces) and then I rotate about the hinge to bring the pieces together.

I could have stopped there, but a single joint doesn’t do anything. If I’m using up acrylic, I prefer building something that can be nominally useful. So the ambition grew to building a little box: 5 pieces (four identical for sides and one for bottom) joined together by simple right angle joints. This is only a small box, just big enough to be useful for things like holding little screws, nuts, and washers. It seemed a suitable baby step since most of the projects I have in mind for acrylic (starting with the FreeNAS enclosure) basically boil down to acrylic boxes as well. So the fixture was designed in CAD, then multiplied to create three additional copies at right angles to each other, to create my box building fixture.

3D Printed Acrylic FixtureThe end result demonstrated that, even though a 3D printer does not have cutter kerf to compensate for, it introduces other errors in the system. Maybe expensive industrial 3D printers would have enough accuracy to make this fixture work, but my little hobbyist level printer definitely did not. The corners of the box did not mate together as precisely as it did in my mind. The gaps are too wide and uneven for acrylic cement to bridge.

After this experiment, I decided I should go back to laser cutting and learn how to compensate for kerf and/or design around it.

 

Fusion 360 Foundational Concepts Tutorial

foundational-concepts-iconI went back into Autodesk’s Fusion 360 learning resources for a refresher and to set myself up to learn the Fusion 360 CAM modules. The last time I went through the tutorials, I had skipped the CAM functionality because I had no machine tools and were not likely to get time on anybody else’s machinery. Now that I might be able to access Tux-Lab fabrication machinery, I wanted to make sure I won’t break the machine from doing anything stupid in Fusion 360.

Before I got to CAM, though, the “Foundational Concepts” section caught my attention. I either didn’t see it the last time or it made no impression on me at the time. I went through the set of short videos and they were surprisingly informative. Most tutorials for Fusion 360 (and most other software packages in general) are happy to tell users how to accomplish their tasks. This is a slightly different twist – the foundation concepts talk about why Fusion 360 is the way it is. About how they tried to restructure a CAD package for the cloud-based future, about how they restructured the workflow to take advantage of today’s level of computation power at our fingertips, so on and so forth.

I come from a software engineering background and I’m all too aware of the fact that the end user typically has no idea what the software developer had intended as they built the piece of software. It can be argued that the end user doesn’t need to know anything about the intent if the software is sufficiently well-designed. But for something complex like a CAD package, I believe there is value in learning the motivation behind the design.

And even if the user doesn’t need to know, sometimes the user is curious and wants to know. I appreciate the Fusion 360 user education team for putting this information out there available for those who want to know.

Fusion 360 vs. Onshape: Raspberry Pi

raspberry-pi-logoAnd now for something completely silly: let’s look at how our two competing hobbyist-friendly CAD offerings fare on the hobbyist-friendly single-board computer, the Raspberry Pi.

(Spoiler: both failed.)

Raspberry Pi

I have on hand the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B. Featuring a far more powerful CPU than the original Pi which finally made the platform usable for basic computing tasks.

When the Raspberry Pi foundation updated its Raspbian operating system with PIXEL, they switched the default web browser from Epiphany to Chromium, the open-source fork of Google’s Chrome browser. Bringing in a mainstream HTML engine resulted in far superior compatibility with a wider range of web sites, supporting many of the latest web standards, including WebGL which is what we’ll be playing with today.

Autodesk Fusion 360

Fusion 360 is a native desktop application compiled for Windows and MacOS, so we obviously couldn’t run that on the Pi. However, there is a web component: Fusion 360 projects can be shared on the Autodesk 360 collaboration service. From there, the CAD model can be viewed in a web browser via WebGL on non-Windows/MacOS platforms.

While such files can be viewed on a desktop machine running Ubuntu and Chromium, a Raspberry Pi 3 running Chromium is not up to the task. Only about half of the menu bar and navigation controls are rendered correctly, and in the area of the screen where the actual model data should be, we get only a few nonsensical rectangles.

Onshape

Before this experiment I had occasionally worked on my Onshape projects on my desktop running Ubuntu and Chromium, so I had thought the web-based Onshape would have an advantage in Raspberry Pi Chromium. It did, just not usefully so.

In contrast to A360’s partial menu UI rendering, all of Onshape’s menu UI elements rendered correctly. Unfortunately, the actual CAD model is absent in the Raspberry Pi Chromium environment as well. We get the “Loading…” circle and it was never replaced by the CAD model.

Conclusion

Sorry, everyone, you can’t build a web-based CAD workstation with a $35 Raspberry Pi 3.

You can, however, use these WebGL sites as a stress test of the Raspberry Pi. I had three different ways of powering my Pi and this experiment proved enlightening.

  1. A Belkin-branded 12V to 5V USB power adapter: This one delivered good steady voltage at light load, but when the workload spiked to 100% the voltage dropped low enough for the Pi to brown out and reset.
  2. A cheap Harbor Freight 12V to 5V USB adapter: This one never delivered good voltage. Even at light load, the Pi would occasionally flash the low-voltage warning icon, but never low enough to trigger a reboot. When the workload spiked to 100%, the voltage is still poor but also never dropped enough to trigger a reset. Hurray for consistent mediocrity!
  3. An wall outlet AC to 5V DC power unit (specifically advertised to support the Raspberry Pi) worked as advertised – no low-voltage warnings and no resets.

OpenSCAD for Motion Visualization

Now that I’ve climbed the initial learning curve for OpenSCAD, it’s time to start working towards my goal for doing this: I want to visualize arbitrary motion between components as a rough draft to see how things move in virtual space.

This is not an unique capability in CAD packages. Both Fusion 360 and Onshape have ability to define object hierarchies and visualize their motion. However, they are both focused on the assemblies that have been mechanically defined in CAD. If I wanted to visualize a  hinge-like motion between two objects, I first need to build that hinge in CAD or the software would “helpfully” tell me I’m trying to perform an impossible motion in my design.

In contrast, OpenSCAD does not care. I can place a rotate() operation anywhere I want and it won’t care if there’s no hinge in the design. It is happy to let me rotate about an arbitrary point in 3D space with no hardware around it. This makes OpenSCAD ideal for trying out how wild ideas would (or would not) work in virtual space, before getting down to the nitty-gritty about how to build the mechanisms to implement those wild ideas.

This means some cool-looking ideas would turn out to be impossible to implement, but that’s OK. I wanted something with a lot more freedom than I can get in the CAD packages that limit what I can do for (in their view) my own protection.

But that’s still in the future. For now I’m still climbing the learning curve of moving objects around in OpenSCAD in a way that ties into the built-in animation capability and generating animated GIF to illustrate concepts.

As a learning exercise, I’ve re-implemented the motion of the Luggable PC hinge. Thanks to OpenSCAD flexibility, I didn’t have to spend time building the hinge before I move it!

lug3

Hello OpenSCAD! You remind me of an old friend…

HelloOpenSCADOpenSCAD is a very popular 3D modeling tool in the 3D printing community. Many of the projects available to print on Thingiverse were generated from OpenSCAD. This is most obvious when authors uploaded their .scad files for sharing with the community, but also visible as a core pillar of the “customizable things” section. The customization capability is made possible by variables the author made adjustable in OpenSCAD.

I started designing for 3D printing with the GUI CAD tools, Onshape and Fusion360, so the text-based approach of OpenSCAD seemed strange and foreign at first glance. The official OpenSCAD web site documentation pointed to several tutorials. Not knowing the comparative advantage of one versus another, I just clicked on the first in the list How to use OpenSCAD. It linked to several other tutorials, the most notable one being Know only 10 things to be dangerous in OpenSCAD as having the most compact words-to-content ratio.

I had initially approached it as “Boy it’s going to be hard to completely change my thinking” but as I got along in the tutorial I realized things didn’t feel as foreign as I thought it might be. Digging through musty memories, I realized I had encountered this type of 3D modeling (CSG or Constructive Solid Geometry) before many years ago in the form of POV-Ray. Back in the days when a 20-megahertz 386 was a pretty speedy CPU, and the floating point processor wasn’t a standard part of every PC. I had to upgrade my computer with the purchase of a 387 math co-processor in order to render my POV-Ray projects at a reasonable speed.

Editing CSG files for rendering in POV-Ray was my first exposure to 3D computer graphics, and I chose it because it was free. I couldn’t afford GUI graphics software (the flagship at the time was Autodesk 3D Studio) so I started with the basics and I learned a lot that way. In time, I might appreciate the straightforward simplicity of OpenSCAD in the same way.

Fusion 360 vs. Onshape: Multiple Views

Advantage: Onshape.

When working on a CAD project, the majority of my time is spent focused on a single view of my subject. But when it comes to align parts into an assembly, it is very useful to have multiple views, and this is where Fusion 360 falls behind Onshape.

Fusion 360 can toggle between the standard single-view mode and a quad-view mode. In quad-view mode, the window starts with four equal-sized views and the user can adjust the relative sizes within the window.

F360MultiView

This is a bare-bones baseline level of functionality. I can work with it, but I’m not happy with it. Onshape does it better.

Onshape takes advantage of the fact it runs in a browser. You can have multiple browser windows open on the same Onshape project, and each window can be a different view. Onshape infrastructure keeps all the windows in sync – any change made in one view is immediately reflected in all the others. Want four views? Open four windows. Want 6 views? (top/bottom/left/right/front/back) Open six windows.

And since these Onshape views are all separate windows, they can be placed on different monitors to build a great multi-monitor workspace. Fusion 360 is limited to a single window. Trying to use Fusion 360 across multiple monitors means manually scaling the application window across them. Toolbars get cut in half, resolution doesn’t match, problems left and right. It is not ideal.

What about opening multiple instances of Fusion 360, one for each monitor? It turns out that doesn’t work because the instances are unaware of each other. Change made in one instance is not reflected in the others until the user hits “Save” in one instance and “Reload” in all the other open instances.

The obvious conclusion is that Fusion 360 works best on a single high-resolution display instead of multiple screens. Sadly this is also false. As mentioned in my first Fusion 360 vs. Onshape comparison, Fusion 360 does not scale to high-resolution displays (4K, Retina, etc.) whereas Onshape takes advantage of the fact browser makers have long since handled the problem of scaling for high resolution.

Since the time of my first comparison Autodesk knowledge base published a workaround for running Fusion 360 on high-resolution displays. With these workarounds, Fusion 360 now runs poorly at 4K, which I guess is an improvement over not running at all.

With more multi-view options, including multi-monitor, plus superior support for high-resolution displays, Onshape handily wins this comparison, and they know it.